Visual References

Page 1 – Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and copies of the drawing of a grey dronefly and a flea from Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1667).

Page 2 – Potrait of Ernst Haeckel and copies of some of his drawings, collected in Arts Forms in Nature (1899).

Page 3 – Copy of Monster soup commonly called Thames water, being a correct representation of that precious stuff doled out to us!!!, a Satirical print by William Heath, published by Thomas McLean (circa 1828).

Page 4 – Portrait of James Clerk Maxwell, famous for his equations of electromagnetism.

Page 5 – Portrait of James Clerk Maxwell, famous for his equations of electromagnetism.

Page 7 – Copy of Krazy Kat by George Herriman (1880–1944).

Editorial Note

This article is part of the Graphic Science Special Collection edited by Nicolas Labarre and Ernesto Priego.

Competing Interests

The author has no competing interests to declare.


Aubusson, PJ, Harrison, AG and Ritchie, SM. 2006. Metaphor and Analogy in Science Education. Springer Science & Business Media. DOI: [doi: 10.1007/1-4020-3830-5]

Bowdle, BF and Gentner, D. 2005. The career of metaphor. Psychological Review, 112(1): 193–216. DOI: [doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.112.1.193]

Brown, TL. 2003. Making Truth: Metaphor in Science. University of Illinois Press.

Cohn, N. 2014. The Visual Language of Comics: Introduction to the Structure and Cognition of Sequential Images. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Cohn, N. 2016. Sequential images are not universal, or Caveats for using visual narratives in experimental tasks. In: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Papafragou, A, Grodner, D, Mirman, D and Trueswell, J (eds.). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Cohn, N, Murthy, B and Foulsham, T. 2016. Meaning above the head: Combinatorial constraints on the visual vocabulary of comics. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(5): 559–574. DOI: [doi: 10.1080/20445911.2016.1179314]

Czerwiec, MK, Czerwiec, M, Williams, I, Squier, SM, Green, MJ, Myers, KR and Smith, ST. 2015. Graphic Medicine Manifesto. Pennsylvania State University Press.

Farinella, M. 2018. The potential of comics in science communication. Journal of Science Communication, 17(1): Y01. DOI: [doi: 10.22323/2.17010401]

Flusberg, SJ, Matlock, T and Thibodeau, PH. 2017. Metaphors for the War (or Race) against Climate Change. Environmental Communication, 1–15. DOI: [doi: 10.1080/17524032.2017.1289111]

Forceville, C. 2016. Conceptual metaphor theory, blending theory, and other cognitivist perspectives on comics. In: The Visual Narrative Reader. Bloomsbury Academic.

Gentner, D. 1983. Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy. Cognitive Science, 7(2): 155–170. DOI: [doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog0702_3]

Gentner, D and Gentner, DR. 1982. Flowing Waters or Teeming Crowds: Mental Models of Electricity. In: Mental Models, Gentner, D and Stevens, AL (eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 99–129. Available: [2017, October 30].

Gentner, D and Grudin, J. 1985. The evolution of mental metaphors in psychology: A 90-year retrospective. American Psychologist, 40(2): 181. DOI: [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.40.2.181]

Gentner, D and Miall, DS. 1981. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors? In: Metaphor: Problems and Perspectives, 106–132. Harvester Press. Available: [2017, October 28].

Gibbs, RW. 2011. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory. Discourse Processes, 48(8): 529–562. DOI: [doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2011.606103]

Gick, ML and Holyoak, KJ. 1980. Analogical problem solving. Cognitive Psychology, 12(3): 306–355. DOI: [doi: 10.1016/0010-0285(80)90013-4]

Gilbert, JK, Reiner, M and Nakhleh, M. 2007. Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education. Springer Science & Business Media.

Green, MJ and Myers, KR. 2010. Graphic medicine: Use of comics in medical education and patient care. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 340: c863. DOI: [doi: 10.1136/bmj.c863]

Hauser, DJ and Schwarz, N. 2015. The war on prevention: Bellicose cancer metaphors hurt (some) prevention intentions. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(1): 66–77. DOI: [doi: 10.1177/0146167214557006]

Hoffman, RR. 1980. Metaphor in science. In: Cognition and figurative language, 393–423. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hooke, R. 1667. Micrographia: Or, Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses, with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon. Science Heritage. DOI: [doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.113984]

Juricevic, I and Horvath, A. 2016. Analysis of Motions in Comic Book Cover Art: Using Pictorial Metaphors. The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship, 6. DOI: [doi: 10.16995/cg.71]

Kampourakis, K. 2016. The Bad Use of Metaphors and the Use of Bad Metaphors. Science & Education, 25(9–10): 947–949. DOI: [doi: 10.1007/s11191-016-9870-2]

Keller, EF. 2009. Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines. Harvard University Press.

Kuhn, TS. 1979. Metaphor in Science. In: Metaphor and Thought, Ortony, A (ed.), 409–19. Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G and Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press.

Leatherdale, WH. 1974. The role of analogy, model, and metaphor in science. North-Holland Pub. Co.

McCloud, S. 1994. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Reprint edition ed. New York, NY: William Morrow Paperbacks.

Miall, DS. 1982. Metaphor, problems and perspectives. Harvester Press.

Negrete, A. 2013. Constructing a Comic to Communicate Scientific Information about Sustainable Development and Natural Resources in Mexico. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103: 200–209. DOI: [doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.327]

Ortony, A. 1993. Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press. DOI: [doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139173865]

Pauwels, E. 2013. Communication: Mind the metaphor. DOI: [doi: 10.1038/500523a]

Pauwels, L. 2006. Visual Cultures of Science: Rethinking Representational Practices in Knowledge Building and Science Communication. UPNE.

Schilperoord, J. 2013. Raising the Issue: A Mental-Space Approach to Iwo Jima-Inspired Editorial Cartoons. Metaphor and Symbol, 28(3): 185–212. DOI: [doi: 10.1080/10926488.2013.768513]

Sontag, S. 2001. Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors. Macmillan.

Sousanis, N. 2015. Unflattening. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Tatalovic, M. 2009. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: A brief, exploratory study. The Journal of Science Communication, A02.

Tufte, ER. 1997. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

Tversky, B. 2011. Visualizing thought. Topics in Cognitive Science, 3(3): 499–535. DOI: [doi: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01113.x]

Tversky, B, Zacks, J, Lee, P and Heiser, J. 2000. Lines, Blobs, Crosses and Arrows: Diagrammatic Communication with Schematic Figures. In: Theory and Application of Diagrams: First International Conference, Diagrams 2000 Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, September 1–3, 2000 Proceedings, Anderson, M, Cheng, P and Haarslev, V (eds.), 221–230. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. DOI: [doi: 10.1007/3-540-44590-0_21]

Weitkamp, E and Burnet, F. 2007. The Chemedian Brings Laughter to the Chemistry Classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 29(15): 1911–1929. DOI: [doi: 10.1080/09500690701222790]

Wolk, D. 2007. Reading Comics: How Graphic Novels Work and what They Mean. Da Capo Press.

Wysocki, L. 2018. Farting Jellyfish and Synergistic Opportunities: The Story and Evaluation of Newcastle Science Comic. The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship, 8. DOI: [doi: 10.16995/cg.119]